organic farming techniques

organic farming techniques
production of organic farms is increasing, especially as consumers become more aware of food safety issues, preservation environmental and wildlife protection.

Organic farming is practiced in over 100 countries worldwide, and from 2007 he There were more than 26 million hectares managed through techniques of farming. Of this total, Australia has the largest share (43.3%) with 11.3 million hectares, Argentina was far behind with 2.8 million hectares.

Since its inception, the position organic farming has been opposed to large scale agricultural chemical agriculture. The debate between organic farming and agriculture chemical is far from settled. Some of the points involved are described below.

Natural control against pests and diseases

A system of farming uses no synthetic chemicals, including inorganic fertilizer, the insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. To keep pests at acceptable levels of natural pesticides may be used. Chemical say supporters of agriculture natural pesticides are rudimentary and are actually enhanced by synthetic pesticides, and the distinction between the two is arbitrary. Farming Advocates emphasize that pest control in organic farms is done by promoting the presence of predators and natural enemies of pests, continued to crop rotation, using cover crops, and growing healthy plants, natural pesticides (such as soybean oil, rotenone and pyrethrum) are used as a last resort.

Research in the early 1990s showed that organic farms have lower populations of insect pests than conventional farms, or that there is little difference between them. A comprehensive analysis by Letourneau and Goldstein (2001) that studied organic and conventional tomato farms in California showed that there was no difference in the abundance of herbivores (herbivores), but organic farms had higher abundance and greater variety of natural enemies to pests that have affected crops, leading to better pest control.

Soil Ecology

The proponents have always said that the organic system maintains high levels of biological activity and fresh organic matter into humus, thus promoting health soil. Many studies on various aspects of soil ecology, including physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and its processes as ecological recycling of nutrients in organic farming systems and conventional confirmed the claims of proponents of organic farming.

Some of the most important studies related to testing of conventional and organic farming in Switzerland (known as DOK trials), which covered a period of 21 years. A study by Siegrist et al. (1998) found that the organic plots had significantly greater biomass of earthworms, the stability of soil aggregates and diversity of the population than conventional plots. Another study by Mader et al. (2000) showed colonization of beneficial fungi was 30-60% higher in plants grown in agricultural systems Biological, implying that biological systems have greater capacity to achieve the plant-fungus symbiosis.

Losses of elements Nutrients

Many studies have shown that leaching of nitrate at rates slower in organic farms than conventional farms. For example, Eltun et al. (1995) found that nitrate runoff in cropping conventional cash in Norway has been higher at least twice in organic species cropping systems. Among farms producing crops, forage nitrate loss in systems Organic was 36% lower than conventional systems.

Soil productivity

Criticism Basic cons organic farms is that yields are lower than conventional farms. The DOK trial in Switzerland found that biological systems have yields 20% lower than conventional systems, but it was also noted that fertilizer consumption in biological systems has been 50% lower. Supporters of organic agriculture to develop the economic costs of traditional agricultural systems such as the cost of environmental cleaning and depletion of nonrenewable energy resources, however, biological systems to avoid these hidden costs.

Another factor contributing to lower yields in organic farms is the presence of weeds. Several researchers have found higher densities biomass of weeds and weeds in organic farms compared to conventional farms. Moreover, researchers have also reported the presence of weed species on rare and endangered the mature, decades-old organic farms, which may indicate a contribution plant biodiversity encouraging. It may not help the economy in the short term, but it does support long-term environmental concerns.

Keywords: soil ecology, organic farming, sustainable agriculture, conventional agriculture, the soil health, the most profitable agriculture.

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Helen M. Disler
Farming Secrets

Article Source: ArticlesBase.comOrganic Farming Show to be Superior to Conventional Farming

Organic Farming

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